7/3/18

Subak: Bali Traditional H2o Management Arrangement (Irrigation)

Subak is an organisation owned yesteryear the farmers inwards Bali that specifically regulates H2O management or watering systems/irrigation of rice fields traditionally, the existence of Subak is a manifestation of the philosophy/concept of Tri Hita Karana.

Tri Hita Karana is derived from the discussion "Tri" important three, "Hita" which agency happiness/well-being in addition to "Karana" which agency the cause. It tin live concluded that the Tri Hita Karana agency "Three things causes the creation of happiness in addition to well-being". Its application inwards the Subak System equally follows:

  • Parahyangan is a harmonious human relationship betwixt human in addition to God.
  • Pawongan is a harmonious human relationship betwixt human in addition to his neighbor.
  • Palemahan is the harmonious human relationship betwixt human in addition to nature in addition to the environment.

The discussion "Subak" is a discussion that comes from the Balinese language, the discussion was showtime seen inwards the inscription of Pandak Bandung that has numbers 1072 AD. The discussion "Subak" refers to a unique social in addition to religious institutions, has its ain settings, democratic associations of farmers inwards determining the work of irrigation H2O for growing rice.

Subak for Balinese is non simply an irrigation system, but also the concept of life for the people of Bali itself. In the stance of Balinese people, Subak is a straight overview of the philosophy of Tri Hita Karana.

 is an organisation owned yesteryear the farmers inwards Bali that specifically regulates H2O managem Subak: Bali Traditional Water Management System (irrigation)
Subak - Image yesteryear Rekam Republic of Indonesia

As a method of organisation of living together, Subak survived for over a century because of the people obedient to the ancestral traditions. Water distribution is done fairly in addition to equitably, all the problems discussed in addition to solved together, fifty-fifty the timing of planting in addition to conclusion of the type of rice planted was done together.

Sanctions against diverse types of violations volition live determined yesteryear the people themselves through ceremonies or rituals performed inwards the temples. This variety of harmonization of life is the primal factor inwards the preservation of the cultural of Subak inwards Bali.

Subak Organizational Structure

Subak members or also commonly called Krama Subak is the farmers who remove maintain cultivated rice fields in addition to larn a slice of H2O inwards their fields. In Subak members are also available several groups called Sekaa, Krama Subak classified into three, namely:

  1. Krama Aktif is the active members such equally krama pekaseh, sekaa yeh or sekaa Subak.
  2. Krama Pasif is the members that supersede their obligations amongst coin or inwards variety for several reasons commonly referred to Pengampel or Pengohot.
  3. Krama Luput is the members which is non active inwards all sorts of Subak activities because of the duties equally caput of the hamlet or Bendesa Adat.

Subak organisation commission (Prajuru) consists of:

  1. Pekaseh/Kelian is served equally caput of the Subak.
  2. Pangliman/Petajuh, served equally deputy caput of the Subak.
  3. Peyarikan/Juru tulis is equally secretary.
  4. Petengen/Juru raksa is has a duty equally treasurer.
  5. Saya/Juru arah/Juru uduh/Juru tibak/Kasinoman has the duty inwards matters of discovery or announcement.
  6. Pemangku is a special duty inwards matters of ritual or religious events.

The groups (Sekaa) inwards Subak divided into:

  1. Sekaa Numbeg is a grouping that regulates the processing of land.
  2. Sekaa Jelinjingan is the grouping inwards accuse of organizing the H2O treatment.
  3. Sekaa Sambang is the grouping who has the labor of monitoring the H2O of the theft, banish or pick out grip of animals that destroy crops such equally birds in addition to rodents.
  4. Sekaa Memulih/Nandur is a grouping inwards accuse inwards price of planting rice seedlings.
  5. Sekaa Mejukut is a grouping inwards accuse of weeding rice.
  6. Sekaa Manyi is the grouping inwards accuse to cutting or harvest rice.
  7. Sekaa Bleseng is a grouping that has the duty of transporting the bond of rice that has been planed from the fields to the barn.

As an organisation that is autonomous inwards taking assist of their ain organizations, Subak tin prepare rules known equally Awig awig, Sima, in addition to Perarem. Inside the awig awig written things in addition to basic provisions, the original contents inwards awig awig is prepare most parahyangan, pawongan in addition to palemahan piece provisions in addition to things inwards to a greater extent than particular contained inwards pararem equally the implementation of awig awig Subak. Awig awig Subak contains rights in addition to obligations of members of Subak in addition to contains most sanctions for violations of rights in addition to obligations.

Subak Irrigation Network

Experts also mentioned that Subak, equally good equally technological systems, has go a civilisation inwards Bali. Subak equally a method of the applied scientific discipline of the original civilisation of the Balinese farmer. The original facilities of irrigation H2O command scheme (palemahan) for each fellow member of Subak is pengalapan (dam), jelinjing (trenches), in addition to a cakangan (spot/tool to larn into the H2O to the rice fields).

if at a given location rice champaign at that spot are 2 or to a greater extent than following cakangan to each other, in addition to hence the superlative of those cakangan are the same (the ease in addition to smoothness of the H2O flowing into the fields owned yesteryear each farmer is the same), but the departure inwards the width of the holes of the cakangan tin live tolerated customized yesteryear a broad margin of paddy fields. Manufacture, maintenance, in addition to management of the work of irrigation facilities of Subak conducted jointly yesteryear the members.

Network inwards the Subak irrigation scheme if sorted from H2O sources consist of:

  1. Empelan/Empangan equally a source of H2O flow/dam.
  2. Bungas/Buka equally an inlet (in take).
  3. Aungan equally a unopen drains or tunnel.
  4. Telabah Aya (gede) equally the original H2O channel.
  5. Tembuku Aya (gede) equally the original edifice for the distribution of water.
  6. Telabah Tempek (Munduk/Dahanan/Kanca) equally the branch H2O channel.
  7. Telabah Cerik equally twig H2O channel.
  8. Telabah Panyacah (tali kunda), inwards some places known equally Penasan (for 10 parts), Panca (for five people), in addition to Pamijian (1 person).

Through this Subak system, farmers larn H2O inwards accordance amongst the weather condition prepare yesteryear the deliberation of the members of Subak in addition to all the same guided yesteryear the philosophy of Tri Hita Karana. Therefore, the activity inwards organizations/associations of Subak includes non exclusively agricultural issues but also includes issues of ritual in addition to worship to invoke expert fortune in addition to fertility.

Rice field, rice plants, in addition to the H2O has an of import purpose inwards Subak irrigation scheme is fifty-fifty associated amongst a religious aspect. All those 3 are related to the ability of Dewi Sri (the goddess of fertility in addition to prosperity). Therefore, Subak non exclusively regulates the number in addition to delivery of H2O but also the social in addition to religious aspects.

 is an organisation owned yesteryear the farmers inwards Bali that specifically regulates H2O managem Subak: Bali Traditional Water Management System (irrigation)

Each Subak ordinarily has a temple called Pura Ulun Carik Temple or Pura Bedugul Temple, specially built yesteryear farmers to worship the Goddess Sri. This irrigation scheme is governed yesteryear an indigenous leader in addition to also a farmer called Kelian (Klian) which has the chore to supervise in addition to grapple Subak.

To live Kelian Subak is a social nature, does non larn a salary. The partitioning or distribution of H2O is adjusted to the membership of farmers inwards Subak, at that spot are active in addition to passive members, both got dissimilar H2O distribution. This is the ground of judge where the H2O distribution adapted to the contribution.

The ancient irrigation scheme of Subak has been studied in addition to researched yesteryear Clifford Geertz, piece J. Stephen Lansing has attracted world attending on the importance of traditional irrigation methods. He studied in addition to researched many sacred places (temples) inwards Bali, particularly the sacred house reserved for agriculture.

In 1987, J. Stephen Lansing cooperate amongst farmers inwards Bali has redeveloped inwards the irrigation system/Subak irrigation becomes to a greater extent than effective. That fashion he tin evidence how the effectiveness in addition to importance of Subak irrigation method inwards Bali.

Subak - World Heritage Sites yesteryear UNESCO

UNESCO - The United Nations Educational, Scientific, in addition to Cultural Organization has lastly admitted Subak inwards Bali equally a earth cultural heritage. Such recognition tin live realized later on the fighting of Indonesian commonwealth authorities for to a greater extent than than 12 years.

Proposal for this category is non slowly because it requires in-depth interrogation amongst the approach through diverse sciences such equally archeology, anthropology, geography, environmental science, landscape architecture, in addition to another related sciences.

Right at the engagement June 29, 2012, the Proposal is approved in addition to designated equally World Cultural Heritage yesteryear UNESCO inwards the 36th session of UNESCO World Heritage Committee inwards the town of Saint Peterburg, Russia.

The conclusion equally a World Cultural Heritage was welcomed yesteryear the authorities in addition to the people of Bali. According to the filing, Subak inwards Bali which has an surface area of ​​approximately 20,000 ha, consisting of a H2O command scheme that is inwards five districts of Badung, Bangli, Buleleng, Gianyar in addition to Tabanan.

Sites inwards Bali defined yesteryear UNESCO equally earth cultural heritage are:

  1. Ulun Danu Batur Temple, located at the cease of the lake Batur, which is the original H2O temple equally the source of whatever springs in addition to rivers.
  2. Subak Landscape of watersheds Pakerisan, which is known equally the oldest irrigation scheme inwards Bali.
  3. Subak Landscape of Catur Angga Batukaru, tourist attractions of Jatiluwih rice terraces is 1 of its parts.
  4. Taman Ayun Temple, the greatest H2O temple amongst its most famous architecture, exemplifies the sum expansion of the Subak scheme nether imperial authorities of Bali inwards the 19th century.

The components of Subak is roofing the forests that protect H2O supplies, landscapes of terraced rice fields that are connected yesteryear a scheme of canals, tunnels in addition to dams, villages, temples of diverse sizes indicating the importance of H2O resources or H2O flowing through the temple declined irrigating H2O command system.

Subak Museum

To innovate in addition to save Subak which is an ancestral cultural heritage of Bali, in addition to hence established the Subak Museum which is located inwards Tabanan regency which aims to innovate immature generation or tourists most the traditional irrigation scheme owned in addition to is all the same used today yesteryear the farmers on the Island of Bali.
Read to a greater extent than most Subak Museum: Bali Agriculture Collection & Traditional Irrigation.

 is an organisation owned yesteryear the farmers inwards Bali that specifically regulates H2O managem Subak: Bali Traditional Water Management System (irrigation)

In this museum exhibited in addition to displays objects that relate to the operate of farmers equally good equally audio-visual shows activities inwards running Subak irrigation management.

References:
- whc.unesco.org
- ale-alesma3dps.blogspot.com
-  is an organisation owned yesteryear the farmers inwards Bali that specifically regulates H2O managem Subak: Bali Traditional Water Management System (irrigation) Bahasa Indonesia