Destinationsinbali; Subak: Bali Traditional H2o Administration Arrangement (Irrigation)

Subak is an organisation owned yesteryear the farmers inward Bali that specifically regulates H2O administration or watering systems/irrigation of rice fields traditionally, the existence of Subak is a manifestation of the philosophy/concept of Tri Hita Karana.

Tri Hita Karana is derived from the discussion "Tri" pregnant three, "Hita" which way happiness/well-being as well as "Karana" which way the cause. It tin live concluded that the Tri Hita Karana way "Three things causes the creation of happiness as well as well-being". Its application inward the Subak System every bit follows:

  • Parahyangan is a harmonious human relationship betwixt human as well as God.
  • Pawongan is a harmonious human relationship betwixt human as well as his neighbor.
  • Palemahan is the harmonious human relationship betwixt human as well as nature as well as the environment.

The discussion "Subak" is a discussion that comes from the Balinese language, the discussion was source seen inward the inscription of Pandak Bandung that has numbers 1072 AD. The discussion "Subak" refers to a unique social as well as religious institutions, has its ain settings, democratic associations of farmers inward determining the usage of irrigation H2O for growing rice.

Subak for Balinese is non but an irrigation system, but also the concept of life for the people of Bali itself. In the persuasion of Balinese people, Subak is a straight overview of the philosophy of Tri Hita Karana.

 is an organisation owned yesteryear the farmers inward Bali that specifically regulates H2O managem DestinationsinBali; Subak: Bali Traditional Water Management System (irrigation)
Subak - Image yesteryear Rekam Republic of Indonesia

As a method of scheme of living together, Subak survived for over a century because of the people obedient to the ancestral traditions. Water distribution is done fairly as well as equitably, all the problems discussed as well as solved together, fifty-fifty the timing of planting as well as decision of the type of rice planted was done together.

Sanctions against diverse types of violations volition live determined yesteryear the people themselves through ceremonies or rituals performed inward the temples. This form of harmonization of life is the cardinal factor inward the preservation of the cultural of Subak inward Bali.

Subak Organizational Structure

Subak members or also commonly called Krama Subak is the farmers who take away maintain cultivated rice fields as well as larn a slice of H2O inward their fields. In Subak members are also available several groups called Sekaa, Krama Subak classified into three, namely:

  1. Krama Aktif is the active members such every bit krama pekaseh, sekaa yeh or sekaa Subak.
  2. Krama Pasif is the members that supplant their obligations alongside coin or inward form for several reasons commonly referred to Pengampel or Pengohot.
  3. Krama Luput is the members which is non active inward all sorts of Subak activities because of the duties every bit caput of the hamlet or Bendesa Adat.

Subak organisation commission (Prajuru) consists of:

  1. Pekaseh/Kelian is served every bit caput of the Subak.
  2. Pangliman/Petajuh, served every bit deputy caput of the Subak.
  3. Peyarikan/Juru tulis is every bit secretary.
  4. Petengen/Juru raksa is has a duty every bit treasurer.
  5. Saya/Juru arah/Juru uduh/Juru tibak/Kasinoman has the duty inward matters of detect or announcement.
  6. Pemangku is a special duty inward matters of ritual or religious events.

The groups (Sekaa) inward Subak divided into:

  1. Sekaa Numbeg is a grouping that regulates the processing of land.
  2. Sekaa Jelinjingan is the grouping inward accuse of organizing the H2O treatment.
  3. Sekaa Sambang is the grouping who has the project of monitoring the H2O of the theft, banish or grab animals that destroy crops such every bit birds as well as rodents.
  4. Sekaa Memulih/Nandur is a grouping inward accuse inward damage of planting rice seedlings.
  5. Sekaa Mejukut is a grouping inward accuse of weeding rice.
  6. Sekaa Manyi is the grouping inward accuse to cutting or harvest rice.
  7. Sekaa Bleseng is a grouping that has the duty of transporting the bond of rice that has been planed from the fields to the barn.

As an organisation that is autonomous inward taking tending of their ain organizations, Subak tin ready rules known every bit Awig awig, Sima, as well as Perarem. Inside the awig awig written things as well as basic provisions, the psyche contents inward awig awig is ready almost parahyangan, pawongan as well as palemahan piece provisions as well as things inward to a greater extent than particular contained inward pararem every bit the implementation of awig awig Subak. Awig awig Subak contains rights as well as obligations of members of Subak as well as contains almost sanctions for violations of rights as well as obligations.

Subak Irrigation Network

Experts also mentioned that Subak, every bit good every bit technological systems, has larn a civilisation inward Bali. Subak every bit a method of the applied scientific discipline of the master civilisation of the Balinese farmer. The psyche facilities of irrigation H2O command scheme (palemahan) for each fellow member of Subak is pengalapan (dam), jelinjing (trenches), as well as a cakangan (spot/tool to larn inward the H2O to the rice fields).

if at a given location rice plain at that spot are ii or to a greater extent than following cakangan to each other, as well as hence the acme of those cakangan are the same (the ease as well as smoothness of the H2O flowing into the fields owned yesteryear each farmer is the same), but the departure inward the width of the holes of the cakangan tin live tolerated customized yesteryear a broad margin of paddy fields. Manufacture, maintenance, as well as administration of the usage of irrigation facilities of Subak conducted jointly yesteryear the members.

Network inward the Subak irrigation scheme if sorted from H2O sources consist of:

  1. Empelan/Empangan every bit a source of H2O flow/dam.
  2. Bungas/Buka every bit an inlet (in take).
  3. Aungan every bit a unopen drains or tunnel.
  4. Telabah Aya (gede) every bit the psyche H2O channel.
  5. Tembuku Aya (gede) every bit the psyche edifice for the distribution of water.
  6. Telabah Tempek (Munduk/Dahanan/Kanca) every bit the branch H2O channel.
  7. Telabah Cerik every bit twig H2O channel.
  8. Telabah Panyacah (tali kunda), inward some places known every bit Penasan (for 10 parts), Panca (for five people), as well as Pamijian (1 person).

Through this Subak system, farmers larn H2O inward accordance alongside the conditions ready yesteryear the deliberation of the members of Subak as well as yet guided yesteryear the philosophy of Tri Hita Karana. Therefore, the activity inward organizations/associations of Subak includes non exclusively agricultural issues but also includes issues of ritual as well as worship to invoke expert fortune as well as fertility.

Rice field, rice plants, as well as the H2O has an of import purpose inward Subak irrigation scheme is fifty-fifty associated alongside a religious aspect. All those 3 are related to the ability of Dewi Sri (the goddess of fertility as well as prosperity). Therefore, Subak non exclusively regulates the number as well as delivery of H2O but also the social as well as religious aspects.

 is an organisation owned yesteryear the farmers inward Bali that specifically regulates H2O managem DestinationsinBali; Subak: Bali Traditional Water Management System (irrigation)

Each Subak commonly has a temple called Pura Ulun Carik Temple or Pura Bedugul Temple, specially built yesteryear farmers to worship the Goddess Sri. This irrigation scheme is governed yesteryear an indigenous leader as well as also a farmer called Kelian (Klian) which has the project to supervise as well as handle Subak.

To live Kelian Subak is a social nature, does non larn a salary. The segmentation or distribution of H2O is adjusted to the membership of farmers inward Subak, at that spot are active as well as passive members, both got dissimilar H2O distribution. This is the ground of jurist where the H2O distribution adapted to the contribution.

The ancient irrigation scheme of Subak has been studied as well as researched yesteryear Clifford Geertz, piece J. Stephen Lansing has attracted populace attending on the importance of traditional irrigation methods. He studied as well as researched many sacred places (temples) inward Bali, particularly the sacred house reserved for agriculture.

In 1987, J. Stephen Lansing cooperate alongside farmers inward Bali has redeveloped inward the irrigation system/Subak irrigation becomes to a greater extent than effective. That manner he tin evidence how the effectiveness as well as importance of Subak irrigation method inward Bali.

Subak - World Heritage Sites yesteryear UNESCO

UNESCO - The United Nations Educational, Scientific, as well as Cultural Organization has lastly admitted Subak inward Bali every bit a ground cultural heritage. Such recognition tin live realized afterwards the deal of Indonesian democracy regime for to a greater extent than than 12 years.

Proposal for this category is non tardily because it requires in-depth interrogation alongside the approach through diverse sciences such every bit archeology, anthropology, geography, environmental science, landscape architecture, as well as another related sciences.

Right at the appointment June 29, 2012, the Proposal is approved as well as designated every bit World Cultural Heritage yesteryear UNESCO inward the 36th session of UNESCO World Heritage Committee inward the town of Saint Peterburg, Russia.

The decision every bit a World Cultural Heritage was welcomed yesteryear the regime as well as the people of Bali. According to the filing, Subak inward Bali which has an expanse of ​​approximately 20,000 ha, consisting of a H2O command scheme that is inward five districts of Badung, Bangli, Buleleng, Gianyar as well as Tabanan.

Sites inward Bali defined yesteryear UNESCO every bit ground cultural heritage are:

  1. Ulun Danu Batur Temple, located at the destination of the lake Batur, which is the psyche H2O temple every bit the source of whatever springs as well as rivers.
  2. Subak Landscape of watersheds Pakerisan, which is known every bit the oldest irrigation scheme inward Bali.
  3. Subak Landscape of Catur Angga Batukaru, tourist attractions of Jatiluwih rice terraces is 1 of its parts.
  4. Taman Ayun Temple, the greatest H2O temple alongside its most famous architecture, exemplifies the sum expansion of the Subak scheme nether majestic regime of Bali inward the 19th century.

The components of Subak is roofing the forests that protect H2O supplies, landscapes of terraced rice fields that are connected yesteryear a scheme of canals, tunnels as well as dams, villages, temples of diverse sizes indicating the importance of H2O resources or H2O flowing through the temple declined irrigating H2O command system.

Subak Museum

To innovate as well as save Subak which is an ancestral cultural heritage of Bali, as well as hence established the Subak Museum which is located inward Tabanan regency which aims to innovate immature generation or tourists almost the traditional irrigation scheme owned as well as is yet used today yesteryear the farmers on the Island of Bali.
Read to a greater extent than almost Subak Museum: Bali Agriculture Collection & Traditional Irrigation.

 is an organisation owned yesteryear the farmers inward Bali that specifically regulates H2O managem DestinationsinBali; Subak: Bali Traditional Water Management System (irrigation)

In this museum exhibited as well as displays objects that relate to the run of farmers every bit good every bit audio-visual shows activities inward running Subak irrigation management.

-  is an organisation owned yesteryear the farmers inward Bali that specifically regulates H2O managem DestinationsinBali; Subak: Bali Traditional Water Management System (irrigation) Bahasa Indonesia


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